Pursuant to Article 17a(4) of Directive 89/391/EEC, using the national implementation reports as a basis, the European Commission is then required to "evaluate the implementation of the Directives concerned in terms of their relevance, of research and of new scientific knowledge in the various fields in question’. This contract aims at supporting the Commission for this evaluation. It assesses the practical implementation of the 24 EU Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Directives in the EU 27 with a view to assessing their relevance, effectiveness and coherence and identifying possible improvements to the regulatory framework. The evaluation covers the period 2007-2012. This evaluation is of crucial importance to the future development of the regulatory framework on OSH. It will allow for stock to be taken of the level of implementation of the OSH Directives in the Member States. This will set the scene for a common and unified assessment of the relevance of the Directives and the needs for improvements to the regulatory framework and other measures to ensure an adequate level of protection of workers' health and safety. AETS carried out the tasks of evaluation through three principal tasks. The first task concerns the mapping of practical implementation for France and Italy. One aspect of mapping was to establish a general overview of the national frameworks that Member States establish to put the Directives into practice. A second aspect was to establish an overview of how the organisations that are affected by these frameworks put them into practice 'on the ground'. The second task concerned evaluation according to the criteria of relevance, effectiveness and coherence. The third task concerned the making of recommendations on the basis of the evaluation.