This study was designed to provide an in-depth review of the evidence on extreme poverty and associated inequalities, and on what reduces them, in order to inform the EU’s reflections on implementing the post 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The European Commission’s (EC) concern in commissioning this work was that the geographies and character of extreme poverty and deprivation may be changing radically, and that therefore adjustments to the EU’s development policies and instruments may be needed in years to come. The primary objective was to provide an up to date and insightful analysis of trends and underlying factors as a basis for the EU’s own reflections on its policies. Where clear implications for national level and international development policy could be derived from the analysis, these were elaborated upon. Finally, where possible implications emerged for the EU’s international development work, these were highlighted, and suggestions on where policies and instruments needed reviewing and why they will be made.