Fisheries are of major importance to Indonesia, both as a source of nutrition for the growing population as well as a source of foreign exchange earnings. According to World fishing & Aquaculture, about 54% of the nation’s protein intake comes from the consumption of fish and other seafood. In fact, per capita consumption of fishery products has tripled from an annual average of 10.2 kg in the 1970s to 27.3 kg in 2010 due to the increased marine fisheries catch and growth in aquaculture production over the past three decades. The main mariculture species in Indonesia are various finfish, shellfish, seaweeds and other species, including sea cucumber. Finfish, such as seabass, groupers and snappers, with a production of 8,760 tons in 2002 (DGA, 2004), are highly valued and command good prices on the export market. The live food fish trade is a global system that links fishing communities with markets, primarily in Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China and the domestic markets as well. Food safety has become a growing concern for citizens of many countries. Outbreaks of disease in animals that could be transmitted to humans such as the avian flu, or the presence of chemicals above acceptable limits in feed and food, can threaten both the quality and safety of products. The need to be able to withdraw or recall products identified as unsafe has become essential to protect people from food borne diseases. Traceability is a risk-management tool which enables food business operators or authorities to respond to that need. It is a cornerstone of any country’s food safety policy.

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