The European Union Delegation (EUD) to Turkey operates under a decentralised management system whereby it verifies that Instrument for Pre-Accession assistance (IPA) structures operate under designated management requirements. As such, the EUD is required to ex-ante approve files for calls for tenders, proposals and the award of contracts. Control and monitoring checks exercised by the EUD are aimed at safeguarding the interests of the European Community and ensuring that the programmes are implemented in an effective and efficient manner in line with the applicable rules of the IPA framework. AETS was contracted to assist the EUD in fulfilling these obligations with regards to rail transport projects. The overall objective of this assignment was to: • Assist the EUD in facilitating and monitoring the transport (rail) operational programme under IPA Component III (Regional Development). The specific objective of this assignment is to: • Provide technical assistance to the EUD in i) undertaking ex-ante controls under the Decentralised Implementation System (DIS) for tendering of the Modernisation of Samsun-Kalin railway project; ii) monitoring of ongoing railway construction projects.