The Word Bank and the European Commission decided to cooperate in the domain of energy in fragile countries where additional support to make progress towards MDGs and to support economic growth is needed. Two themes were identified for collaboration: • Development of a paper on the specific challenges and opportunities of increasing energy access in fragile/post conflict states • A programme of WB/EC cooperation at country level, in 3-4 countries (Liberia, Burundi, Central African Republic and possibly Somalia), the results of this would determine whether further such cooperation is warranted. AETS was proposed to develop the EC’s contribution to this collaboration. The global objective of this assignment was to contribute to the better understanding of the issue of energy and fragility in the context of Sub-Sahara, Africa and identify strategies to improve access to energy which could be followed up by the donor community. The specific objective was to contribute substantially to an analytical piece on energy and fragility (in collaboration with the World Bank and its experts) and deliver Action Plans for coordinated support from the EC/WB in Liberia, Burundi, Central African Republic and Somalia.